Thinking in Complexity: The Complex Dynamics of Matter, by Klaus Mainzer

By Klaus Mainzer

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Therefore it was determined that movement (Kivrt(JlC:;) in general was change, transition from possibility to reality, "actualization of potential" (as people in the Middle Ages were to say). The task of physics was to investigate movement in nature in this comprehensive sense. Nature (tpV(JlC:;) - in contrast to a work of art produced by man, or a technical tool - was understood to be everything that carried the principle of movement within itself. If the Aristotelian designations make us think, first of all, of the life processes of plants, animals, and people as they present themselves to us in everyday experience, these designations seem to us to be thoroughly plausible and apposite.

He noticed that two clocks hanging on the same wall tend to synchronize. This phenomenon is caused by nonlinear coupling through the elasticity of the wall. Indeed, any two dynamical systems can be combined into a single system by constructing the Cartesian product of the two corresponding state spaces. A small perturbation of this combined system is called a coupling of the two systems. 19]. Each clock A and B is a kind of oscillator. For the sake of visualizing the asymptotic behaviour of both oscillators, the transient behavior is ignored and the two-dimensional state model of the Euclidean plane with a limit cycle around the origin for the two parameters of displacement and velocity is replaced by the limit cycle alone.

The configuration of the atoms for the purpose of designation is compared with the sequence of letters in words, which has led to the presumption that atomistic ideas were developed only in cultures with phonetic alphabets. In fact, in China, where there was no phonetic alphabet but instead ideographic characters, the particle idea was unknown and a field-and-wave conception of the natural processes prevailed. The Democritean atoms move according to necessity (civaYK17) in a constant whirl (Ozvo~ or Jiv17).

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