By Gil Friedman
The techniques of business enterprise and constitution are of accelerating and defining value to diplomacy and politics as fields of enquiry and data. this is often the 1st e-book to discover the 2 strategies extensive in that context.The agent-structure challenge refers to questions about the interrelationship of organisation and constitution, and to the ways that motives of social phenomena combine and account for them. this can be a huge contribution to the learn of diplomacy and politics.
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Additional info for Agency, Structure and International Politics: From Ontology to Empirical Enquiry (Routledge Advances in International Relations and Politics, 2)
Our analysis emphasizes a fundamental inconsistency in Waltz’s conception of state insecurity. Consistent with Wendt s vision of an individualist ontology, Waltz frames his theory as microeconomic and treats state insecurity as given by assumption. Concomitantly, however, Waltz postulates agency insecurity as a result—indeed a necessary result—of his conceptualization of international structure. In fact, each of the three vertically arranged dimensions of structure— 47 48 AGENCY, STRUCTURE, AND INTERNATIONAL POLITICS including functional differentiation which does not “drop out” of Waltz’s model but is in fact at most a defining property of anarchy and at least an ever-present, albeit static, attribute of structure—clearly implicate, one might even say generate in the Wendtian sense, agency insecurity.
This criterion derives from the simple notion that variation in an explanandum cannot be explained with a constant. Stated positively, only variation in one or more properties can account for variation in one or more other properties. 5. 5a shows a concept which contains defining properties that are not variable. In other words, these general concepts can take on only one value on the lower, empirical level. 5b depicts a concept in which a defining propety is variable, as can be seen from the fact that a plurality of empirical possibilities derive from the term connoting them.
Intension, or connotation, refers to “the ensemble of characteristics and/or properties associated with, or included in, a given word, term, or concept” (Sartori 1984:24). 5 The extension of a term “consists of the class of all objects to which that word correctly applies” (Salmon 1964:90, quoted in Sartori 1984:24). Extensional properties are responsible for making a concept empirical. “A concept is empirical if, and only if, it can be rendered in testable propositions that confirm it (in some respect or extent); and a concept cannot be so confirmed or falsified—with respect to the propositions it generates—unless we identify its extension” (Sartori 1984:28).