By J.W. Negele, Erich W. Vogt
This quantity comprises significant articles, one supplying a ancient retrospective of 1 of the nice triumphs of nuclear physics within the 20th century and the opposite offering a didactic creation to 1 of the quantitative instruments for figuring out powerful interactions within the twenty-first century. this article is appropriate just for complicated graduate classes in nuclear physics.
Read Online or Download Advances in Nuclear Physics, Volume 27 (Advances in the Physics of Particles and Nuclei) PDF
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Additional info for Advances in Nuclear Physics, Volume 27 (Advances in the Physics of Particles and Nuclei)
It is based on nucleon-nucleon interactions which are due to a potential (“Wigner force”) or a potential multiplied by a space exchange operator (“Majorana force”). Eigenstates of Hamiltonians with such interactions could be classified according to irreducible representations of the SU(4) group. This theory was used in pre-1949 years and could account for some important properties of nuclei, like symmetry energy. A particularly attractive feature of this theory was the clear distinction between favoured (“allowed”) and unfavoured (“super-allowed”) beta decays.
Energies of states with given L and S are then degenerate and do not depend on the total angular momentum J. They form multiplets in which eigenvalues are split by spin dependent forces, like the spin-orbit interaction. In the U(4) scheme, all states with given spin-isospin symmetry form a It may contain states with different spins S and isospins 22 Igal Talmi T. Since there are nuclei in which only some of the states of a given supermultiplet may appear. The irreducible representations of the U(4) group of spin-isospin states are characterized by 4 numbers.
It was pretty clear that these calculations could not explain the exceptional ground state spins of and In addition to experimental information and theoretical discussion of ground states, excited states were considered. In the seminal paper of Goldhaber and Sunyar (1951) on classification of nuclear isomers, they stated the rule that the first excited state of even-even nuclei has “usually spin 2 and even parity”. The experimental information was considered by Horie, Umezawa, Yamaguchi, and Yoshida (1951) who found evidence for several cases in which the first and second excited states of even nuclei had spins 2 and 4.