Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 32 by Renata Dmowska (ed.), Barry Saltzman (ed.)

By Renata Dmowska (ed.), Barry Saltzman (ed.)

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A simpler class of numerical solutions is that for which crack motion is specified a priori rather than being derived from a failure criterion. These fixed rupture-velocity fault models have been studied for faulting represented by a circular area (Madariaga, 1976; Das, 1980)and rectangular areas (Madariaga, 1977; Day, 1982a). , Das, 1981; Day, 1982b; Virieux and Madariaga, 1982; Boatwright and Quin, 1986),and they are probably the best approximation of real earthquake source processes, in which the heterogeneity of fault planes is a dominant factor.

Even earthquake swarms associated with intrusive events at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii have been found to be represented by strike-slip mechanisms, well correlated with inferred magma progagation dirrections and seismicity patterns (Karpin and Thurber, 1987). On the other hand, the focal mechanisms of microearthquakes associated with the cooling lava lake of Kilauea Iki, Hawaii have been hypothesized to be of non-double-couple nature (Chouet, 1979). In the Hengill triple-junction area in southeastern Iceland, which contains an active volcanic system, 50% of the 178 studied small earthquakes within the area are non-double-couple events and are interpreted as resulting from tensile crack formation (Foulger, 1988).

1974). Several focal mechanisms have been determined for seismic events recorded with both compressional and dilatational first motion and located at or 28 SLAWOMIR J. GIBOWICZ directly below the level of mine workings in the Eastern Mountain area (Williams and Arabasz, 1989). , 1989). An unexpected result of both these studies was the observation of numerous seismic events recorded with dilatational first motions at all stations. Williams and Arabasz (1989) have noted that the majority of the dilatational events can be fitted with a double-couple normal faulting mechanism if they occurred above mine level.

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