Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, Vol. 42 by Benjamin Bederson (ed.), Herbert Walther (ed.)

By Benjamin Bederson (ed.), Herbert Walther (ed.)

This sequence, demonstrated in 1965, is anxious with fresh advancements within the common zone of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. the sphere is in a country of fast progress, as new experimental and theoretical thoughts are used on many aged and new difficulties. subject matters coated additionally contain comparable utilized parts, reminiscent of atmospheric technological know-how, astrophysics, floor physics, and laser physics.

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In addition, because nuclear spins are being observed, the system is relatively robust with respect to external influences, and photo-ionization provides the high detection efficiencies necessary to close the detection loophole. In conclusion, Bohm’s original gedankenexperiment is now becoming an experimental reality. X. Acknowledgments This research was supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation grant No. A-1218 and by the National Science Foundation grant PHY-9732459. The authors thank John Clauser and Marlan Scully for many helpful discussions on the theory and for encouragement, as well as Robert Kenefick, Remus Nicolaescu, and Cechan Tian for their experimental contributions and active participation.

11) and (12). The reflection amplitude in Eq. (22) is the sum of two terms. The fist term describes an atom that is transmitted through the first beam-splitter and reflected from the second beam-splitter. This term corresponds to beam E in Fig. 5. The second term corresponds to beam D. Defining y = 2argt1 (23) that is, t l = It1 leiY/2,the relative phase between the two amplitudes in Eq. (22) is a y. The probabilities for reflection and transmission can easily be calculated, yielding + and, of course, 2 Ittotall + 2 lrtotall =1 (25) For the parameters of our experiment, the factor 41rl1*1t11*in Eq.

Atomic Beam B. Microwave Field . . C. Internal State Prepara ............ 111. Bragg Reflection ................. A. Generalized Storing Scheme. . . . . . . . X. Wigner Function .......................... XI. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MI. Acknowledgments . 29 33 33 34 35 35 36 36 42 42 45 48 48 49 50 52 54 51 60 60 62 64 65 69 69 69 I. Introduction Wave-particle duality means that a quantum object can exhibit either wave or particle properties, depending on the experimental situation.

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