By E. Arimondo, P.R. Berman and C.C. Lin (Eds.)
This quantity keeps the culture of the Advances sequence. It comprises contributions from specialists within the box of atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics. The articles include a few evaluation fabric, yet are meant to supply a complete photo of contemporary vital advancements in AMO physics. either theoretical and experimental articles are integrated within the quantity. . overseas specialists . complete articles . New advancements
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Additional info for Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
Clocks based on states for which mF ¼ careful simultaneous measurement of the local magnetic field in order to prevent variations in this parameter from resulting in variations of the clock frequency. While this latter approach is not altogether prohibitive, it 28 Vishal Shah and John Kitching adds significant complications to the operation of the device and has not found widespread popularity. , 2008). The measurement of transitions between these atomic states can be accomplished in several ways.
This principle has been successfully demonstrated in two ways. Jau et al. (2004a), Taichenachev et al. (2004b), and Karga poltsev et al. (2004) have proposed splitting the light fields into two parts with orthogonal polarization and recombining the fields after introdu cing a relative path delay between the þ and — components. The relative path difference of half a microwave wavelength (ground-state hyperfine splitting) shifts the phase of the dark state such that the reso nances constructively interfere.
Cs beam clocks (Essen & Parry, 1955; Ramsey, 1950), based on beams of alkali atoms in a vacuum, are also highly accurate and are manufactured in rack-mounted enclosures. Vapor cell atomic clocks are based on atoms confined in a cell with a buffer gas (Arditi, 1958; Carver, 1957; Dicke, 1953) or wall coating Advances in CPT for Atomic Clocks (a) 29 (b) LO Number of atoms in final state E2 E2 E1 State preparation E1 State detection Transition excitation LO frequency Figure 4 (a) The operation of a passive atomic frequency reference typically proceeds in three steps.